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Imputing missing sleep data from wearables with neural networks in real-world settings

Lee, Minki P / Hoang, Kien / Park, Sungkyu / Song, Yun Min / Joo, Eun Yeon / Chang, Won / Kim, Jee Hyun / Kim, Jae Kyoung

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Abstract

Sleep is a critical component of health and well-being but collecting and analyzing accurate longitudinal sleep data can be challenging, especially outside of laboratory settings. We propose a simple neural network model titled SOMNI (Sleep data restOration using Machine learning and Non-negative matrix factorIzation [NMF]) for imputing missing rest-activity data from actigraphy, which can enable clinicians to better handle missing data and monitor sleep–wake cycles of individuals with highly irregular sleep–wake patterns. The model consists of two hidden layers and uses NMF to capture hidden longitudinal sleep–wake patterns of individuals with disturbed sleep–wake cycles. Based on this, we develop two approaches: the individual approach imputes missing data based on the data from only one participant, while the global approach imputes missing data based on the data across multiple participants. Our models are tested with shift and non-shift workers' data from three independent hospitals. Both approaches can accurately impute missing data up to 24 hours of long dataset (>50 days) even for shift workers with extremely irregular sleep–wake patterns (AUC > 0.86). On the other hand, for short dataset (~15 days), only the global model is accurate (AUC > 0.77). Our approach can be used to help clinicians monitor sleep–wake cycles of patients with sleep disorders outside of laboratory settings without relying on sleep diaries, ultimately improving sleep health outcomes.

Issue Date
2024-01
Publisher
The American Academy of Sleep Medicine
URL
https://academic.oup.com/sleep/article-abstract/47/1/zsad266/7306801?redirectedFrom=fulltext&login=true
DOI
10.1093/sleep/zsad266
Journal Title
Sleep
ISSN
0161-8105
Language
English
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