The Impact of Minimum Wage Policy on Employment in Myanmar
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of the minimum wage policy and the employment labor force in Myanmar by exploring firms’ actions such as installing supplementary machines to substitute for labor resources and by addressing gender issues in employment. Research design, data, and methodology: This paper applies a fixed-effect estimation method by using the World Bank’s enterprise panel data set surveyed in Myanmar. Results: Findings suggest that the minimum wage reduces both full-time and part-time employment, while the first minimum wage policy increases overall female employment. The adverse impacts are more pronounced for female employees of Joint Venture enterprises and enterprises located in the less-populated regions. Investment in capital such as equipment and machinery increase to substitute for labor after the minimum wage policy implementation; as a result, full-time employment slightly decreases. Conclusions: Appropriate measures concerning the minimum wage policy must be prepared by the government and institutions related to the labor union to serve the well-being of employees. Government of Myanmar should fix the minimum wage in a reasonable period based on the fiscal year for both employers and employees to prevent possible issues and losses resulting from the minimum wage being set.
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