Russia and Energy Issues under the WTO System
Russia spent almost two decades to complete the process of its entry into the World Trade Organization. In addition to commitments on market opening and numerous other 'general' trade issues, it assumed specific obligations on the energy sector with respect to export duties, State-owned enterprises, transit of goods, pricing policy, and services. This is not surprising as Russia is one of the largest resource-holding countries in the world, and its economy is highly dependent on the fuel and energy complex. As of 1 October 2015, Russia participated in four disputes as a complainant and five disputes as a respondent. All complaining cases deal with certain energy-related issues, namely an anti-dumping methodology of cost adjustment and the European Union's energy market reforms. It is expected that, with the Russian accession, energy regulation will play a greater role in the multilateral trading system.
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