Shadow Education : School Quality and Demand for Private Tutoring in Korea
- Shadow Education : School Quality and Demand for Private Tutoring in Korea
- Kim, Taejong
- private tutoring; school quality; choice in education
- Issue Date
- Series/Report no.
- KDI Working Paper Series;04-21
- Private tutoring is known to be pervasive in many parts of the world, and yet has
received scanty attention from economists. This paper empirically examines the determinants
of the demand for private tutoring in South Korea, where the thriving and
expanding industry of private tutoring industry already constitutes a major conduit for
education alongside formal schooling. Korean households spend about 2.9% of GDP on
private tutoring at the primary and secondary levels, a figure within striking distance
of 3.4% in public expenditure for formal schooling. This paper presents econometric
evidence that lower school quality stimulates demand for private tutoring significantly.
The result supports the view that institutional features in student’s learning environments
are among the key driving factors for the demand for the shadow education,
and not just high-stakes tests and academic achievement incentives. The result is also
in line with the view that the mushrooming of private tutoring is a natural market
response to underprovided and overregulated formal schooling in Korea.
- Files in This Item:
Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.